Bitcoin Mining Xeon Phi - Last week I posted on my latest ...

[USA-WA] [H] Xeon E3-1245 - 750GB Laptop Drives - Intel Dual Gigabit NICs [W] Bitcoin/Cash

I have the following for sale:
2 x Intel Xeon E3-1245 Info - $75 Each Shipped - These were used for a few years in desktop PCs, but the PCs were recycled and I kept the CPUs. Never had a use for them. BOTH SOLD
4 x Hitachi 750GB 7200RPM Laptop Drives (7K750) - $30 Each Shipped - These were pulled from Mac Mini's and work perfectly. They have been through a long SMART test with no errors
1 x Seagate 750GB 7200RPM Laptop Drive - $30 Shipped - This was pulled from a Dell laptop that was upgraded with an SSD. Passed long SMART test.
2 x Intel PRO/1000 Dual Gigabit NIC - $20 Each Shipped - Low profile brackets only, sorry. Pulled from a decommissioned server. 100% working and tested - 1 SOLD
Message me with any questions.
http://imgur.com/a/KkwGO
submitted by trogdorr to hardwareswap [link] [comments]

[US-MO] [H] Intel Xeon E5-2407 Quad-Core Processor [W] paypal / bitcoin / trade?

Proof Image
Looking for $200 or equivalent trade.
Pulled new from server before upgrading.
CPU-Upgrade info page
Intel Info Page
submitted by techhorder to hardwareswap [link] [comments]

ECC in Intel core 7-8th gen

Hello. Im trying to build home NAS. Looking at mainboards with either c236 or c246 chipset. It supports ECC memory. Intel ARK shows MAANY Intel Core, Pentiums series supporting ECC memory.
But MANY forums and so on always say "oh only Xeons support ecc". Intel forum itself dont give clear answer. I dont want to buy ECC mainboard, ecc ram and then cpu that would not work... Maybe when Intel states ECC supported they mean that cpu works but ecc feature is not used? Xeon is too overpriced for me and i only use it for file sharing not to mine bitcoin :D
Can anyone confirm that 7,8th gen intel cpus support ECC feature?
submitted by T-m-X to intel [link] [comments]

[USA-IL][H]Super Micro Server w/10x4TB WD Reds, 6U GPU mining chassis, Lian Li PC-06s case, EVGA Supernova 1600w PSU, some free stuff[W] PayPal, Local Cash

UPDATE:
ORIGINAL: Timestamps: https://imgur.com/a/KtaDdY6

Qty Item Price
1 Supermicro SC846 Dual Xeon e5-2650v3 Custom Server w/10x 4TB Reds, 24x drive sleds $800 OBO Local Cash
1 0 Lian Li PC-06S includes screws and rubber HDD mounts, etc etc. Made a minor mod to the case to fit AIO at the top. $100 + shipping/packaging, local preferred
1 0 EVGA Supernova 1600 G2 PayPal $200 shipped OBO
1 0 Pentium core i3-7100 w/cooler free + shipping
2 0 (cooler & box only) Ryzen 7 2700x free + shipping
1 6U GPU Bitcoin Mining Rig Server Case – w/6 Chassis fans w/dropdown backplate, 6x PCI-E 16x to 1x Risers & USB cables $100 + shipping/packaging, local preferred
1 Server in 10 bay Rosewill Chassis Local/Cash only
Supermicro SC846 Dual Xeon e5-2650v3 Custom Server
Everything is in Excellent Physical and Working Condition. Drives were powered on 24/7 from
Parts List Description
Supermicro SC846 Chassis (24 bay) Includes all 24 drive sleds
Supermicro PDB Upgraded Power distributor board for dual CPU
Supermicro 920w Super Quiet The regular PSU is too loud so upgraded
2x Intel Xeon e5-2650v3 Dual engineering samples 10c/20t each
2x Noctua NH-U9DXi4
4x 8GB Samsung DDR4-2133 REG ECC 32GB REG ECC Memory perfect for ZFS
3x LS 9211-8i Flashed to IT firmware
5x Noctua AF-A8 PWM Upgraded chassis fans to Noctuas
10 x WD 4TB Red (not shucked) Purchased 11-2014 from Newegg/Amazom
1x NvidiaGT 1030

EVGA Supernova 1600 G2
Standard cables:
Extra Cables:
submitted by november84 to hardwareswap [link] [comments]

AMD Threadripper 3970x - My adventure so far (Will edit as I go)

I own a gaming community called Unknown Skies gaming (For a little Context) and we are planning a server upgrade. Currently we have a Dell R620 with Dual E5-2690 V2's Running @ 3.3Ghz, has 196GB Ram. The game we host on this rig is called Empyrion Galactic Survival.
The reason for the upgrade is currently the server just isnt high end enough to continue supporting our target playerbase of 100 players, and Performance has dipped due to the game being alpha and the devs are not doing much to improve server side efficiency. Back in 7.0 we could host 150 players on this machine, now it struggles with 60... Yeah big change in 2 years.
After a lot of research... I can clearly see Intel Xeon Gold 6154 CPUs (2 of them) do not outperform even the R9 3950x according to passmark. The price of these used intel servers is stunningly high on the used market... Dual 18 Core XG 6154 Processors with 128gb ram (Dell R740 I think, feel free to correct me) cost right around 10,000$ USD Used give or take 1000$ or so... And get stomped on by an 800$ Single Socket CPU... Thats new and has a warranty... I get that it doesnt support as much memory... But Dang...
So I looked into threadripper... HOLY SHAT!! The 3970x hits 60k+ in passmark... And the ENTIRE system with a custom cooling loop is less than 6 Grand? Thats nuts to me! Amazing Deal! Im sad all my servers and rigs are intel hahahahaha.
What we need, What im aiming for, and my thought process - Feel free to leave thoughts and suggestions..
AMD Threadripper 3970x (Because High Per thread throughput matters due to shit code, and more players on a playfield means more cpu usage on that thread, Lots of threads matter as every playfield opens a new PlayfieldServer.exe and is its own instance so the more spread out players are, the more cores you need to spread out workload. 32 cores 64 threads... NICE)
Corsair Vengeance LPX 256 GB (8 x 32 GB) DDR4-3200 Memory (Each player uses around 1-3gb ram, 2 on average, goal was 100 Players)
ASRock TRX40 TAICHI ATX sTRX4 Motherboard (Thought this was a solid selection given the options I saw)
EVGA 1000 W 80+ Gold Certified Semi-modular ATX Power Supply SHOULD be sufficient with a closed loop water cooler, all SSD's and not requiring a gaming GPU (Plan on a 1050ti / 1050 at most)
Case im using is a modified 4U rackmount case with 3x 120mm fans going in the front, radiator behind those. Could NOT find one that I didnt have to modify. Went with El-cheapo option cause imma be drilling it and modding it internally - Rosewill Server Chassis Server Case Rackmount Case for Bitcoin Mining 4U off ebay I think it will work, and if not I have a file server that would LOVE the home LMAO. So it was well worth the Chance.
Water cooling Solution I settled on was a Thermaltake Floe TR4 Edition. I thought about using a Custom Cooling loop, but by the time I priced everything out the way I would do it... It came out to like 500$ ish LMAO. The above cooler From what I can tell should be sufficient, and should fit in the case i chose. Tight fit, but should fit.
Im excitedly looking forward to the build :) Anyone have any experience with any of this and care to chime in?
submitted by Chilimeat to Amd [link] [comments]

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submitted by Hosting_Ultraso1 to u/Hosting_Ultraso1 [link] [comments]

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submitted by Hosting_Ultraso1 to u/Hosting_Ultraso1 [link] [comments]

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submitted by Hosting_Ultraso1 to u/Hosting_Ultraso1 [link] [comments]

How much would a Bitcoin node handling 1GB blocks cost today? I did some back-on-the-envelope calculations.

1GB blocks would be able to confirm more than 5000tx/s. That would be VISA-level scale (which handles, on average, 1736tx/s). We often hear that we shouldn't raise the blocksize because then nodes would become too expensive to run. But how expensive exactly?
We have the following costs to take into account:
For now, I'm going to assume a non-pruned full node (i.e. a node that stores all transactions of the blockchain) for personal use, i.e. for a computer built at home. I'll add in the calculations for a pruned node at the end, which would likely be the prefered option for people who merely want to verify the blockchain for themselves. If you don't care about the assumptions and calculations, you can just jump right to the end of this post. If you spotted any error, please inform me and I'll update my calculation.

Storage

There's, on average, one block every 10 minutes, that is 144 every day and 4320 blocks every thirty days. I was able to find a 3TB HDD for $47,50 on Amazon, that is $0.018/GB. Storing all blocks with all transactions of a month (4320GB) would be $78.96/mo. Prices for storage halved from 2014 to 2017, so we can assume that to half in 2022, thus we can reasonably assume it'd cost around $40/mo. in 2022.
But would such an inexpensive hard disk be able to keep up with writing all the data? I found a comparable cheap HDD which can write 127MB/s sequentially (which would be the writing mode of Bitcoin). That would be enough even for 76GB blocks!
Edit: For the UTXO set, we need very fast storage for both reading and writing. Peter__R, in his comment below, estimates this to be 1TB for 4 billion users (which would make ~46,000tx/s if everyone would make 1tx/day, so id'd require about 10GB blocks). jtoomim seems more pessimistic on that front, he says that much of that has to be in RAM. I'll add the $315 I've calculated below to account for that (which would be rather optimistic, keep in mind).

Bandwidth

Bandwidth is more complicated, because that can't just be shipped around like HDDs. I'll just take prices for my country, Germany, using the provider T-online, because I don't know how it works in the US. You can plug in your own numbers based on the calculations below.
1GB blocks/10 minute mean 1.7MB/s. However, this is an average, and we need some wiggle room for transaction spikes, for example at Christmas or Black Friday. VISA handles 150 million transactions per day, that is 1736tx/s, but can handle up to 24,000tx/s (source). So we should be able to handle 13.8x the average throughput, which would be 1.7MB/s x 13.8 = 23.46M/s, or 187.68Mbit/s. The plan on T-online for 250Mbit/s (translated) would be 54.95€/mo (plus setup minus a discount for the first 6 months which seems to cancel out so we'll ignore it), which would be $61.78/mo. This plan is an actual flatrate, so we don't have to worry about hitting any download limit.
Note, however, that we don't order bandwidth for only our Bitcoin node, but also for personal use. If we only needed 2MB/s for personal use, the plan would be 34.95€, thus our node would actually only cost the difference of 20€ per month, or $22.50/mo. Nielsen's Law of Internet Bandwidth claims that a high-end user's connection speed grows by 50% per year. If we assume this is true for pricing too, the bandwidth cost for ~200Mbit/s/mo. would go down to 12.5% (forgot how exponential growth works) 29.6% of its today's cost by 2022, which decreases our number to $2.81/mo. $6.66/mo.
Edit: jtoomim, markblundeberg and CaptainPatent point out that the node would have a much higher bandwidth for announcing transactions and uploading historical blocks. In theory, it would not be necessary to do any of those things and still be able to verify one's own transactions, by never broadcasting any transactions. That would be quite leechy behaviour, though. If we were to pick a higher data plan to get 1000MBit/s downstream and 500MBit/s upstream, it would cost 119.95€/mo., however this plan isn't widely available yet (both links in German). 500MBit/s of upstream would give us max. 21 connected nodes at transaction spikes, or max. 294 connected nodes at average load. That would cost $39.85 in 2022 (with correct exponential growth).

CPU/Memory

CPU/Memory will be bought once and can then run for tens of years, so we'll count these as setup costs. The specs needed, of course, depend on the optimization of the node software, but we'll assume the current bottlenecks will have been removed once running a node actually becomes demanding hardware-wise.
This paper establishes that a 2.4GHz Intel Westmere (Xeon E5620) CPU can verify 71000 signatures per second... which can be bought for $32.88 a pair on Ebay (note: this CPU is from Q1'10). We'd need to verify 76659tx/s at spikes (taking the 13.8x number), so that pair of CPUs (handle 142,000tx/s) seem to just fit right in (given one signature per tx). We'd also have to account for multiple signatures per transaction and all the other parts of verification of transactions, but it seems like the CPU costs are neglegible anyway if we don't buy the freshest hardware available. ~$100 at current prices seem reasonable. Given Moore's Law, we can assume that prices for CPUs half every two years (transistor count x1.4162), so in three years, the CPU(s) should cost around $35.22 ($100/1.4163).
For memory, we again have to take into account the transaction spikes. If we're very unlucky, and transactions spike and there won't be a block for ~1h, the mempool can become very large. If we take the factor of 13.8x from above, and 1h of unconfirmed transactions (20,000,000tx usually, 276,000,000tx on spikes), we'd need 82.8GB (for 300B per transaction).
I found 32GB of RAM (with ECC) for $106, so three of those give us 96GB of RAM for $318 and plenty remaining space for building hash trees, connection management and the operating system. Buying used hardware doesn't seem to decrease the cost significantly (we actually do need a lot of RAM, compared to CPU power).
Price of RAM seems to decrease by a factor of x100 every 10 years (x1.58510), so we can expect 96GB to cost around $79.89 ($318/1.5853) in 2022.
Of course, CPU and memory need to be compatible, which I haven't taken into account. Chug a mainboard (~$150) and a power supply (~$50) into the mix, and the total would be just over $600 for today's prices. Even if mainboard and power supply prices remain the same, we'd still only have to pay around $315 for the whole setup in 2022.

Electricity

I found the following power consumptions:
So we'd have 129W 147.6W + N*6W. Electricity cost average at 12ct/kWh in the US, in Germany this is higher at 30.22ct/kWh. In the US, it would cost $11.14 $12.75 + N*$0.52 (P*12ct/kWh / 1000 * 24h/day *30days / 100ct/$), in Germany 28.06€ 32.11€ + N*1.30€.
At the end of the first year, it would cost $20.12 $21.73/mo. in the US and 50.52€ 54.57€/mo. in Germany.
At the end of the second year, it would cost $29.11 $30.72/mo. for the US and 72.98€ 77.03€/mo. for Germany. It increases by $8.98/mo. per year in the US and by 22.46€/mo. per year in Germany.
Electricity prices in Germany have increased over time due to increased taxation; in the US the price increase has been below inflation rate the last two decades. As it's difficult to predict price changes here, I'm going to assume prices will remain the same.

Conclusion

In summary, we get:
If we add everything up, for today's prices, we get (E: updated all following numbers, but only changed slightly) $132/mo. (US), $187/mo. (DE) for the second year and $71.92/mo. $78/mo. (US), $115.79/mo. $124/mo. (DE) in 2022.
It definitely is quite a bit of money, but consider what that machine would actually do; it would basically do the equivalent of VISA's payment verification multiple times over, which is an amazing feat. Also, piano lessons cost around $50-$100 each, so if we consider a Bitcoin hobbyist, he would still pay much less for his hobby than a piano player, who'd pay about $400 per month. So it's entirely reasonable to assume that even if we had 1GB blocks, there would still be lots of people running full-nodes just so.
How about pruned nodes? Here, we only have to store the Unspent Transaction Output Set (UTXO set), which currently clocks in at 2.8GB. If blocks get 1000 times bigger, we can assume the UTXO set to become 2.8TB. I'll assume ordinary HDD's aren't goint to cut it for reading/writing the UTXO set at that scale, so we'll take some NVMe SSDs for that, currently priced at $105/TB. Three of them would increase our setup by $315 to $915, but decrease our monthly costs. E: However this UTXO set is also required for the non-pruned node, therefore the setup costs stay at $915. Even in the highest power state, the 3 SSDs will need only 18.6W in total, so we'll get a constant 147.6W for the whole system.
In total, this is:
In total, this is $35.25/mo. in the US and $58.57/mo. in Germany for today's prices, or (E:) $19.41/mo. (US) and (E:) $42.73/mo. (DE) in 2022's prices. Which looks very affordable even for a non-hobbyist.
E: spelling
E²: I've added the 3 NVEe SSDs for the UTXO set, as pointed out by others and fixed an error with exponentials, as I figured out.
submitted by eyeofpython to btc [link] [comments]

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submitted by manipro11 to plexshares [link] [comments]

Looking for a new GPU that lasts as long as the AMD R9 290X has, supporting my motherboard

Build Help/Ready:

I am looking for recommendations for a new GPU. My current one is an AMD R9 290X and it's survived pretty well these past 5+ years.
I'd like to upgrade to a card that performs just as well over time as my current card does.
It should also support the motherboard I have (obviously), my specs are listed below.
What is your intended use for this build? The more details the better.
Programming / gaming / VR gaming. I just want to upgrade the GPU.
If gaming, what kind of performance are you looking for? (Screen resolution, framerate, game settings)
It should support the Valve Index.
Let's also say it should support Red Dead Redemption 2 at max settings? Not too fixated on it supporting the max of max, but it would be good.
What is your budget (ballpark is okay)?
(GPU only) I guess I got the previous one (in 2014) at £300, so I guess I'd say £300 now.
But y'know, Brexit & bitcoin may have inflated prices a little bit.
I am happy to go over this budget. I have no idea how the prices have changed since 2014.
In what country are you purchasing your parts?
United Kingdom
Post a draft of your potential build here (specific parts please). Consider formatting your parts list. Don't ask to be spoonfed a build (read the rules!).
PCPartPicker part list / Price breakdown by merchant (doesn't include SSD/RAM upgrades)
Type Item Price
CPU Intel Xeon E3-1230 V3 3.3GHz Quad-Core Processor £179.99 @ Aria PC
Motherboard ASRock H97 PRO4 ATX LGA1150 Motherboard £66.91 @ More Computers
Video Card Sapphire Radeon R9 290X 4GB Tri-X Video Card £299.15 @ Scan.co.uk
Case Phanteks PH-ES614PC_BK ATX Full Tower Case £77.53 @ Scan.co.uk
Power Supply Fractal Design Integra R2 650W 80+ Bronze Certified ATX Power Supply £43.98 @ Scan.co.uk
Monitor Asus VS228HR 60Hz 21.5" Monitor £93.11 @ Amazon UK
Total
Prices include shipping, taxes, and discounts when available £912.76
Generated by PCPartPicker 2014-08-31 21:14 BST+0100
Provide any additional details you wish below.
Five years ago I was helped by many useful people on /buildapcforme, and ended up with this build.
The AMD R9 290X has held up pretty well although nowadays I have to be a little more selective on which settings I set to "Ultra". Unfortunately I just got a Valve Index and apparently the Valve Index doesn't support R9 cards.
Since then I've upgraded the SSD and got more RAM.
I would really appreciate recommendations for a new card that holds up as well as the R9 290X did. i.e. a card that should suit me well for five years, like my current card has.
Thank you!
submitted by qaisjp to buildapc [link] [comments]

inherited 24U of servers, etc in co-lo... another revenue stream or another business idea?

A client/buddy is sun-setting their business so I have inherited about 24U of their servers (server & workstation grade components) and networking equipment (all 10 Gbe ready) in his co-lo. I can keep them in his cabinet/co-lo and run them for the next year or so, but he asks that I keep my bandwidth usage low, about 10% of his plan's bandwidth (100 Mbps, I believe, so only 10 Mbps). Servers are of the Intel XEON X5600 and 12/24/26xx v1/v2 series, 48 to 192+ GB RAM and up to 30 TB of raw storage. Any ideas that can leverage these servers, yet is low bandwidth/traffic friendly so I can add another revenue stream for my one man MSP business? Or maybe another startup/business idea (MSP related or not)? I'm up for trying anything that brings in even the smallest amount of recurring revenue (except bitcoin mining, pr0n related or anything illegal).
P.S. - All of my clients are small and all are using cloud services for their IT needs, so I don't need nor want to use the servers for this part of my business (their needs are met, doubt any would pay more for whatever I can drum up with these newly inherited resources).
submitted by seenliving to msp [link] [comments]

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submitted by MULTIELECTRONICS to u/MULTIELECTRONICS [link] [comments]

My Beginnings

Images: https://imgur.com/a/tOFNhlJ

My Current Rack Setup

So, this is the first time I've ever done a post like this to homelab and I wanted to give as much detail as possible.
For this, i'm going to work my way left to right, top to bottom.
submitted by DevelopedLogic to homelab [link] [comments]

Andreas Antonopoulos gets "Satoshi's Vision" completely wrong and shows his misunderstanding of the system. He thinks 1 cpu 1 vote means 1 user 1 vote, a common mistake from people on the Core side.

In this video at the 6m20s mark Andreas Antonopoulos speaks about Satoshi's vision. He speaks about "1 cpu 1 vote" saying that Satoshi designed the system to be decentralized as possible, but Andreas completely misunderstands the meaning of 1 cpu 1 vote. He is falling into the common trap of conflating 1cpu 1 vote with 1 user 1 vote.
Andreas, haven't you even read nChains paper about POW and Theory of the Firm? A cpu is an economic resource:
One of the little-known aspects of bitcoin is the nature of the proof of work system. There are many people, especially those who support a UASF or PoW change that believe a distributed system should be completed as a mesh. In this, they confuse centralised systems with centrality. The truth of the matter, no matter which proof of work system is implemented, they all follow a maximal growth curve that reflects the nature of the firm as detailed in 1937 by Ronald Coase (1937).
The bitcoin White Paper was very specific. users of the system "vote with their CPU power" [1]. What this means, is that the system was never generated to give one vote per person. It is designed purely around economic incentives individuals with more hash power will have provided more investment into the system. These individuals who invest more in the system gain more say in the system. At the same time, no one or even two individuals can gain complete control of the system. We'll explore the nature of cartels in a separately, but these always fail without government intervention. The reason for cartels failing comes down to the simple incentivisation of the most efficient member. The strongest cartel member always ends up propping up the weakest. This leads to a strategy of defection.
No proof of work-based solution ever allows for a scenario where you have one vote to one person. The anti-sybiling functions of bitcoin and all other related systems based on proof of work or similar derivatives are derived from an investment based strategy. Solutions to the implementation of ASIC based systems are constantly proposed as a methodology of limiting the centralisation of proof of work systems as it is termed. The truth of the matter is that the mining function within any proof of work system naturally aligns to business interests. This leads to corporations running machines within data centres. On the way that democracies and republics have migrated away from small groups of people individually voting for an outcome towards a vote for a party, the transactional costs associated with individual choice naturally leads to corporate solutions. In this, the corporation mirrors a political party.
In this paper, we address the issues of using alternate approval work systems with regards to either incorporating alternate functions in an extension of simply securing the network against the use of proof of work systems to create a one person one vote scenario in place of economic incentivisation. We will demonstrate conclusively that all systems migrate to a state of economic efficiency. The consequence of this is that systems form into groups designed to maximise returns. The effect is that bitcoin is not only incentive compatible but is optimal. No system can efficiently collapse into an order of one vote one individual and remain secure. In the firm-based nature of bitcoin, we demonstrate that the inherent nature of the firm is reflected within mining pools. Multiple aggregation strategies exist. The strategies range from the creation of collective firms where members can easily join or leave (mining pools) through to more standard corporate structures
Proof of Work as it relates to the theory of the firm. that are successful within any proof of work system. The system was determined to be based on one- vote per CPU (Satoshi, 2008) and not one vote per person or one vote per IP address. The reasons for this is simple, there is no methodology available that can solve byzantine consensus on an individual basis. The solution developed within bitcoin solves this economically using investment. The parties signal their intent to remain bound to the protocol through a significant investment. Those parties that follow the protocol are rewarded. The alternative strategy takes us back to the former and failed systems such as e-cash that could not adequately solve Sybil attacks and decentralise the network. Bitcoin manages to maintain the decentralise nature of the network through a requirement that no individual party can ever achieve more than 50% of the network hash rate.
In all proof of work systems, there are requirements to inject a costly signal into the network that is designed as the security control. To many people, they believe that the cryptographic element, namely the hashing process is the security feature of bitcoin. This is a fallacy, it is the economic cost that is relevant to the overall system and not the individual element.
The benefits of a hash function are that they are difficult to solve in the nature of the proof of work algorithm but are easy to verify. This economic asymmetry is one of the key features of bitcoin. Once a user has found a solution, they know it can be quickly broadcast and verified by others. Additionally, the hash algorithm provides a fair distribution system based on the amount of invested hash rate. The distinction from proof of stake solution as has been proposed comes in the requirement to constantly reinvest. A proof of stake system requires a single investment. Once this investment is created, the system is incentivised towards the protection of the earlier investment. This leads to a scenario known as a strategic oligopoly game.
The solution using a proof of work algorithm is the introduction of an ongoing investment. This is different to an oligopoly game in that sunk cost cannot make up for continued investment. In a proof of stake system, prior investment is crystallised allowing continued control with little further investment. Proof of work differs in that it requires continuous investment. More than this, it requires innovation. As with all capitalist systems, they are subject to Schumpeterian dynamical change (Shumpeter, 1994). The system of creative destruction allows for cycles of innovation. Each innovation leads to waves of creation over the destruction of the old order.
This process creates continued growth. Proof of work-based systems continue to grow and continue to update and change. Any incumbent corporation or other entity needs to continue to invest knowing that their continued dominance is not assured. In bitcoin, we have seen innovative leaps as people moved from CPU-based mining into GPU-based systems. This initial innovation altered the software structure associated with the mining process in bitcoin. That change significantly altered the playing field leading to novel techniques associated with FPGAs and later ASICs dedicated to a specific part of the mining process.
The error held by many people is that this move from a CPU-based solution into more costly implementations could have been averted. A consequence of this has been the introduction of alternative proof of work systems into many of the alt-coins
These systems have been implemented without the understanding that it is not the use of ASICs that is an issue. It is that the belief that individual users can individually mine in a mesh system will be able to be implemented as a successful proof of work. In the unlikely event that a specialised algorithm was implemented that could only run once on any one machine CPU, it would still lead to the eventual creation of corporate data centres for mining. In the section above, we showed using Arrow’s theorem how only a single use proof of work system can be effective. If we extend this and look at the Theory of the Firm (Coase, 1937) we note that in a system in Litecoin and Dogecoin for example. A00137:
Proof of Work as it relates to the theory of the firm. of prices, reduction could be carried out without any organisation. One issue against this arises from the cost of information. Interestingly, as we move into a world of increasingly more information, it becomes scarce information that is important. As the amount of information becomes more voluminous, the ability to uncover accurate and timely information becomes scarcer. The ability to specialise in the coordination of the various factors of production and the distribution of information leads towards vertical integration within firms. We see this first voiced in Adam Smith’s (Smith, 1776) postulation on the firm:
Everyone can choose to either seek further information or act on the information that they already have. This information can be in the form of market knowledge, product knowledge, or expertise, but at some point, the individual needs to decide to act. There is a cost to obtaining information. The returns on obtaining more information hit a maximum level and start to decrease at a certain point. The entrepreneur acts as a guiding influence managing the risk associated with incomplete information compared to the risk of not acting but rather waiting to obtain more information.
In the instance of bitcoin mining, the firm can increase in size through the integration of multiple specialist roles. Even given the assumption that any one process can run on but a single CPU, we come to the scenario of high-end datacentre servers. The Intel Xeon Phi 7290f implements 72 Atom CPU Cores. Each core runs two threads. Even taking the control system into account, this leaves 142 processes able to run per system. With four cards per RU this allows for datacentre implementations of 5,964 mining processes to run on a pure CPU-based proof of work implementation. One person can manage a small number of mining server implementations within a home or small business environment. In large data centre-based organisations such as Facebook, a single administrator can run 20,000 servers
The effect of this would be one individual managing 2,840,000 individual CPU-based mining processes. This alone is outside the scaling capabilities of any individual. This can be further enhanced as cost savings through the creation of large data centres, management savings and integrating multiple network and systems administrators is considered. As we start to add additional layers we come to a maximum where it is no longer profitable to grow the firm in size. Right up until that point, the firm will grow.
submitted by cryptorebel to btc [link] [comments]

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submitted by manipro11 to plexshares [link] [comments]

Rebuttal: EOS does use Public-Key Cryptography (Per the Whiteblock paper) and has close to 4000 PTS (Max)

Introduction

Early November 2018, articles hit the news that EOS is "not a blockchain":
The Research was comissioned by Consensys. From Consensys' homepage, we learn that
ConsenSys is a global organism building the infrastructure, applications, and practices that enable a decentralized world.
If we have a look at the About Page, we learn that
Our focus is on the ecosystem, the growth of the Ethereum network (emphasis mine), and global integration of the benefits of blockchain and tokenization.
The study was done by Whiteblock, the "Scalable Blockchain Testing Platform". If we have a look at the prnewswire press release, we learn that:
Blockchain organizations such as Cosmos, Ethereum Community Fund, Amis, Maker DAO, IMToken, PlatON, Status, Loom Network, Coinfund, 1KX, Transference Fund, Web 3 Foundation, Grid+, MixLabs, Ledger Capital, Enterprise Ethereum Alliance, Google, Microsoft, ConsenSys and Bo Shen - Founding Partner of Fenbushi Capital & Cofounder of Bitshares, along with academic institutions such as Duke, USC, and MIT have committed to contributing resources to develop comprehensive reports based on Whiteblock's raw data (emphasis mine).
So at least a few pro-Ethereum entities have provided resources to Whiteblock. Can we expect impartiality from Whiteblock's research?
Additionally, if we have a look at the report, it was co-jointedly written by two scientist from Whiteblock and two scientists from Consensys:
https://www.screencast.com/t/8niRZaRScVJ
So we have the same party requesting an independent study of a concurrent blockchain and participating to the redaction off the final report. Conflict of interests, anyone?

About EOS and Cryptography:

EOS uses public key cryptography to sign transactions, per the EOS Whitepaper:
https://content.screencast.com/users/ChristopheK/folders/Jing/media/4bf5fb89-c851-450b-abe9-cf50e5691d8f/2018-11-07_0849.png
https://github.com/EOSIO/Documentation/blob/masteTechnicalWhitePaper.md#context-free-actions
Here an overview of an EOS transaction, which includes signatures:
https://steemit.com/eos/@dan/eos-developer-s-log-stardate-201707-9
So this means that EOS transactions signed with a private key are verified using the corresponding public key. This is how in cryptocurrencies, value is transmitted from the owner to the receiver using public key cryptography:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-key_cryptography
If you don't understand this, please read the Bitcoin whitepaper:
https://www.bitcoin.com/bitcoin.pdf
Section 2, transactions:
We define an electronic coin as a chain of digital signatures. Each owner transfers the coin to the next by digitally signing a hash of the previous transaction and the public key of the next owner and adding these to the end of the coin. A payee can verify the signatures to verify the chain of ownership.

Cryptographic Validation

EOS blocks are signed with cryptographic keys:
https://eosio.stackexchange.com/questions/717/what-block-hash-function-and-transaction-signature-method-does-eos-use
The Whiteblock paper says:
This becomes apparent from the substantial reliance on architecture where cryptographic validation is not necessarily instantiated, though rather implemented in proximity.
What does not necessarily instantiated mean? This looks like a rather vague statement where the author isn't sure himself about what he writes.
I think the main beef Consensys/Whiteblocks has with EOS' architecture is that it doesn't do things the way Ethereum does, and hence is deemed "bad".

About the EOS Max Transaction Rate (TPS):

Whiteblock states that their testnet didn't support more than 250 TPS:
As observed in the section on performance, the transaction throughput in the system does not exceed 250 TPS even in optimal settings with 0 ms of latency and 0% packet loss.
To me it seems like it speaks more of Whiteblock's ability of setting up a test net than anything else, because EOS Mainnet already passed several thousands of transactions previously, with the record being close to 4000 TPS (3996 TPS to be exact):

Server Hardware

The servers they have used have, I kid you not, 5-year old specs.
The CPU, an Intel Xeon E5-2667 v2 was released on Sep 10, 2013 (Wikipedia).
The Server, a Dell Poweredge 720, also seems to have been manufactured around that time. You can find videos from 2013-2014 about the server on Youtube.
No wonder they didn’t make it past 250 TPS.

Use of Virtual Machines

While running as block producers, the servers also hosted a set of virtual machines, seemingly to host the clients:
https://content.screencast.com/users/ChristopheK/folders/Jing/media/8b0ac74e-083f-48f2-9897-9153833c74a4/2018-11-04_0910.png
Needless to say, running virtual machines in addition to the block producer software on the same physical machine degrades performance.

Performance Test Inputs

Page 13 features tables with input variables getting changed for each test case. Oddly enough, most tables specify that two TWO input variables were changed for each test case. How from this you can deduct which variable has an influence on the output is a mystery to me.
https://content.screencast.com/users/ChristopheK/folders/Jing/media/db889932-697e-45ec-93a0-54b4e63b999f/2018-11-04_1055.png
However, I think this is an oversight due to sloppy copy-pasting among the tables, and most likely the Network Latency has been kept constant for test series B - F.

History

Edit: added link to Whiteblock paper, spelling, less aggressive tone.
Edit 2: Added server info
Edit 3: Added virtual machine info, links to server hardware, spelling
Edit4: Added introduction, information of performance test inputs
Edit 5: Updated sections About EOS and Cryptography and Cryptographic Validation, About the EOS Max Transaction Rate (TPS)
Edit 6: Some formatting
This post is still work in progress.
submitted by taipalag to eos [link] [comments]

Can anyone help me calculate the hash rate of my friends server? I want to buy it, but it may be a bad deal. Noob help needed!

Any help would be greatly appreciated. I am looking to buy a server from a friend, and possibly mine bitcoin with it. I cannot find any way to calculate the hash rate of the server, so I would appreciate any help I can get. Here it’s stats:
Intel Xeon D-1520
4c / 8t
2.2 GHz
32 GB DDR4 ECC 2133 MHz
SoftRaid 4x2TB SATA
I know there isn’t a way to calculate the exact hash rate of this setup, but it would be amazing if someone could give me an estimate.
submitted by Jar_O_Memes to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

First home server; will my plan accomplish my goals?

I'm planning to build my first home server, and I'd love some feedback on my plans before I buy all the hardware. Can you folks help me with some feedback?
 
What I Want to Do with My Hardware
 
Constraints
 
Current Plan
 
Currently Planned Hardware
Type Item Price
CPU Intel - Xeon E5-2660 V2 2.2 GHz 10-Core Processor $192.97 @ PCM
CPU Intel - Xeon E5-2660 V2 2.2 GHz 10-Core Processor $192.97 @ PCM
CPU Cooler Noctua - NH-D14 SE2011 CPU Cooler $89.99 @ Amazon
CPU Cooler Noctua - NH-D14 SE2011 CPU Cooler $89.99 @ Amazon
Thermal Compound Thermal Grizzly - Aeronaut 3.9 g Thermal Paste $11.59 @ Amazon
Motherboard ASRock - EP2C602-4L/D16 SSI EEB Dual-CPU LGA2011 Motherboard $481.98 @ Newegg
Memory Crucial - 32 GB (2 x 16 GB) Registered DDR3-1866 Memory $159.99 @ Amazon
Storage Western Digital - Blue 1 TB 2.5" Solid State Drive $114.89 @ OutletPC
Storage Western Digital - Blue 1 TB 2.5" Solid State Drive $114.89 @ OutletPC
Storage Western Digital - Red Pro 8 TB 3.5" 7200RPM Internal Hard Drive $140.00
Storage Western Digital - Red Pro 8 TB 3.5" 7200RPM Internal Hard Drive $140.00
Storage Western Digital - Red Pro 8 TB 3.5" 7200RPM Internal Hard Drive $140.00
Storage Western Digital - Red Pro 8 TB 3.5" 7200RPM Internal Hard Drive $140.00
Storage Western Digital - Red Pro 8 TB 3.5" 7200RPM Internal Hard Drive $140.00
Storage Western Digital - Red Pro 8 TB 3.5" 7200RPM Internal Hard Drive $140.00
Video Card Asus - GeForce GTX 1060 6GB 6 GB Strix Video Card $359.98 @ B&H
Case Phanteks - Enthoo Pro Tempered Glass ATX Full Tower Case $122.00 @ Amazon
Power Supply Corsair - HX Platinum 750 W 80+ Platinum Certified Fully Modular ATX Power Supply $99.99 @ Newegg
Sound Card Creative Labs - Sound Blaster Z 30SB150200000 OEM 24-bit 192 kHz Sound Card $90.77 @ OutletPC
Prices include shipping, taxes, rebates, and discounts
Total (before mail-in rebates) $3002.00
Mail-in rebates -$40.00
Total $2962.00
 
Hardware Notes
 
Budget
 
Other Notes
 
My main question is: will this hardware and software setup accomplish my goals?
My secondary question is: is any of my hardware unnecessary for my goals? are there better ways to eat this Reese's?
Thanks so much for all the help in advance, I've learned so much from this subreddit (and DataHoarding) already!
submitted by therightrook to homelab [link] [comments]

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submitted by manipro11 to plexshares [link] [comments]

Online.net servers (need to resell 2 online.net server)

Hello guys,
i have several online.net server but 2 of them i am not using any more and i also dont wanna loose them, if any one interested please give it a call,
Server Specs:-
Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E3-1230 v3 @ 3.30GHz
32 GB Ram
4 TB
1gbps Bandwidth (as almost every one know there bandwidth criteria )
40 euros
payment by what ever you like (btw i accept only PayPal and bitcoin)
i need to sell them urgently otherwise i will loose them in 48 hours .
server cost were 32-32 euros back in 2016 but in may 2018 online.net increased price to 35 euros so currently i am paying 35 euros each and asking for 40 coz of paypal conversions and paypal fees .


submitted by TheVortex0016 to seedboxes [link] [comments]

UK Review of Shadow (Fortnite, Forza, Overwatch)

hey guys, This offers you a dedicated computer (Windows 10) in the cloud with:
all for £27 a month. I thought I would try it out and share my experience with anyone that is interested in gaming but doesn't want to fork out £1500+ on a gaming computer. I tested this on a Samung tablet (integrated GPU), Android phone and a desktop computer. After creating an account and downloading the client, I logged in to see the Windows 10 setup screen (What you would see when you build your own Win10 computer).
Once logged in, I tested the bandwidth and consistently got over 980mb in the speed test! I test Fornite on this tablet and was able to play on EPIC settings at 60FPS. Now in terms of input lag, I didn't notice anything of significance. I was able to log in to Shadow from my Android phone and continue the same game of Fornite.
Forza 3 was ultra smooth on the highest settings and I was able to pair my Xbox 1 controller to Shadow to play it. I tried online multiplayer gaming with Overwatch and again was able to play on highest settings with no visible lag and even won a match!
In summary, I would say
Benefits
Negatives
You can see the gameplay clips here
submitted by TechDoctorUK to cloudygamer [link] [comments]

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